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LTE Charging Management and Charging Applications
Course Description
The traditional telecommunications billing paradigm of time and distance has been under attack in both fixed and mobile networks for some years and new, more sophisticated charging systems are being developed.

For UMTS, a new charging architecture was specified by the 3GPP standards group. This evolved rapidly through Releases 6 and 7 of the 3GPP specifications and has been updated for LTE in Release 8.

Following the industry maxim of not offering a service until it can be charged for, charging needs to be ahead of services in sophistication and this system is designed to cope with any future demands.

This course presents the overall architecture of 3GPP Charging Management before specifically examining major aspects in some detail. These include the interfaces between components and the associated Reference Points as well as specific charging areas such as IMS and Location Services (LCS).

The Diameter Base Protocol provides the Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) facilities needed by the architecture. Diameter thus replaces older systems such as RADIUS.

Policy-based charging is also covered.
Students Will Learn
Target Audience
Anyone needing an in-depth overall understanding of LTE Charging Management and Charging Applications. Such attendees would be employed or contracted to operators, manufacturers, integrators or regulators. Anyone requiring to focus on LTE Charging Management and Charging Applications as directed in the
specific topics of this course.
Course Outline

Module I:     The UMTS Charging Management Architecture


The Principle of Billing

Overall Architecture

Structure of Standards

Charging mechanisms

Flow Based Charging Principles

Offline and Online charging



Module II:    Charging Principles


Data Generation and Transfer

..... Offline

..... Online

Levels of Charging: Bearer, Subsystem and Service

Data Correlation between Levels

Utilization of Charging Information

..... Inter-Operator Settlement



Module III:    Policy and Charging Control


Flow Based Charging

Policy Control


     Functional Entities

     PCRF - Policy Control and Charging Rules Function

     PCEF - Policy and Charging Enforcement Function

Data Flows and Procedures



Module IV:    Offline Charging Reference Points


Rf between a 3G network element and the CDF

Gz between a PCEF and a CGF

Ga for CDR transfer between a CDF and the CGF

Bx for CDR file transfer between any (generic) 3G domain, subsystem or service CGF and a BD.

Wf between a 3GPP WLAN CTF and the CDF.




Module V:    Online Charging Reference Points


Ro between a 3G network element and the OCS

CAP for CAMEL between a network element with integrated SSF and the OCS

Gy between a PCEF and an OCS

Re between the OCF and a Rating Function (RF)

Rc between the OCF and an Account Balance Management Function (ABMF)

Wo between a 3GPP WLAN CTF and the OCS




Module VI:    Legacy Interfaces and Reference Points



Gq, Gx and Rx




Module VII:    Implementation Options


Charging principles

Charging Data Transfer

Partial CDRs

Evolution of Principles between 3GPP Releases


Release 6

            Release 7

            Release 8

PCRF - Policy Control and Charging Rules Function

PCEF Policy and Charging Enforcement Function



Module VIII:    Diameter


The Need for Diameter

Diameter Basics

Diameter Stack


The Diameter Header

The Diameter Document Set

Diameter Protocol Overview

AVPs (Attribute Value Pairs)

Sessions and Connections           



Module IX:    Diameter Charging Application 


RFC 4006 Diameter Credit Control Application


Charging Scenarios

Charging Trigger Function (CTF)

Charging Data Function (CDF)

Online Charging Function (OCF)

Event Based and Session Based Charging

Basic Principles for Diameter Online and Offline charging

Message Sequences

Online Situation



Module X:    Policies


            Some Terms

            Policy Decision Functions




Module XI:    MMS Charging


            MMS Charging Principles

            Online Charging Scenarios

            Offline Charging Scenarios




Module XII:    Location Services (LCS) Charging


            LCS Architecture

            LCS offline Charging Scenarios

LCS Online Charging Scenarios

Charging Information

            R0, Bl and Ga interfaces




Module XIII:    IM Subsystem Charging


            IMS Charging Architecture

            IMS Charging Principles

            Online and Offline Principles

            Diameter Application

            Charging Information and CDR Types



Module XIV:    CDRs

CDR Transfer

CDR Format and Parameters


Delivery Method
Instructor-led with numerous case-studies and exercises.
Equipment Requirements
(This apply's to our hands-on courses only)
BTS always provides equipment to have a very successful Hands-On course. BTS also encourages all attendees to bring their own equipment to the course. This will provide attendees the opportunity to incorporate their own gear into the labs and gain valuable training using their specific equipment.
Course Length
2 Days

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